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状態
Primitive and flexible state management for React

useAtom

useAtom

The useAtom hook is to read an atom value in the state. The state can be seen as a WeakMap of atom configs and atom values.

The useAtom hook returns the atom value and an update function as a tuple, just like React's useState. It takes an atom config created with atom().

Initially, there is no value associated with the atom. Only once the atom is used via useAtom, does the initial value get stored in the state. If the atom is a derived atom, the read function is called to compute the initial value. When an atom is no longer used, meaning all the components using it are unmounted, and the atom config no longer exists, the value in the state is garbage collected.

const [value, setValue] = useAtom(anAtom)

The setValue takes just one argument, which will be passed to the third argument of the write function of the atom. The behavior depends on how the write function is implemented.

Note: as mentioned in the atom section, you have to take care of handling the reference of your atom, otherwise it may enter an infinite loop

const stableAtom = atom(0)
const Component = () => {
const [atomValue] = useAtom(atom(0)) // This will cause an infinite loop
const [atomValue] = useAtom(stableAtom) // This is fine
const [derivedAtomValue] = useAtom(
useMemo(
// This is also fine
() => atom((get) => get(stableAtom) * 2),
[],
),
)
}

Note: Remember that React is responsible for calling your component. Meaning it has to be idempotent, ready to be called multiple times. You will often see an extra re-render even if no props or atoms have changed. An extra re-render without a commit is an expected behavior. It is actually the default behavior of useReducer in React 18.

Signatures

// primitive or writable derived atom
function useAtom<Value, Update>(
atom: WritableAtom<Value, Update>,
options?: { store?: Store },
): [Value, SetAtom<Update>]
// read-only atom
function useAtom<Value>(
atom: Atom<Value>,
options?: { store?: Store },
): [Value, never]

The useAtom hook is to read an atom value stored in the Provider. It returns the atom value and an updating function as a tuple, just like useState. It takes an atom config created with atom(). Initially, there is no value stored in the Provider. The first time the atom is used via useAtom, it will add an initial value in the Provider. If the atom is a derived atom, the read function is executed to compute an initial value. When an atom is no longer used, meaning all the components using it are unmounted, and the atom config no longer exists, the value is removed from the Provider.

const [value, setValue] = useAtom(anAtom)

The setValue takes one argument, which will be passed to the third argument of writeFunction of the atom. The behavior depends on how the writeFunction is implemented.

How atom dependency works

To begin with, let's explain this. In the current implementation, every time we invoke the "read" function, we refresh the dependencies and dependents. For example, If A depends on B, it means that B is a dependency of A, and A is a dependent of B.

const uppercaseAtom = atom((get) => get(textAtom).toUpperCase())

The read function is the first parameter of the atom. The dependency will initially be empty. On first use, we run the read function and know that uppercaseAtom depends on textAtom. textAtom has a dependency on uppercaseAtom. So, add uppercaseAtom to the dependents of textAtom. When we re-run the read function (because its dependency textAtom is updated), the dependency is created again, which is the same in this case. We then remove stale dependents and replace with the latest one.

Atoms can be created on demand

While the basic examples here show defining atoms globally outside components, there's no restrictions about where or when we can create an atom. As long as we remember that atoms are identified by their object referential identity, we can create them anytime.

If you create atoms in render functions, you would typically want to use a hook like useRef or useMemo for memoization. If not, the atom would be re-created each time the component renders.

You can create an atom and store it with useState or even in another atom. See an example in issue #5.

You can cache atoms somewhere globally. See this example or that example.

Check atomFamily in utils for parameterized atoms.

useAtomValue

const countAtom = atom(0)
const Counter = () => {
const setCount = useSetAtom(countAtom)
const count = useAtomValue(countAtom)
return (
<>
<div>count: {count}</div>
<button onClick={() => setCount(count + 1)}>+1</button>
</>
)
}

Similar to the useSetAtom hook, useAtomValue allows you to access a read-only atom.

useSetAtom

const switchAtom = atom(false)
const SetTrueButton = () => {
const setCount = useSetAtom(switchAtom)
const setTrue = () => setCount(true)
return (
<div>
<button onClick={setTrue}>Set True</button>
</div>
)
}
const SetFalseButton = () => {
const setCount = useSetAtom(switchAtom)
const setFalse = () => setCount(false)
return (
<div>
<button onClick={setFalse}>Set False</button>
</div>
)
}
export default function App() {
const state = useAtomValue(switchAtom)
return (
<div>
State: <b>{state.toString()}</b>
<SetTrueButton />
<SetFalseButton />
</div>
)
}

In case you need to update a value of an atom without reading it, you can use useSetAtom().

This is especially useful when the performance is a concern, as the const [, setValue] = useAtom(valueAtom) will cause unnecessary rerenders on each valueAtom update.