JotaiJotai

状態
Primitive and flexible state management for React

Performance

Note: This guide has room for improvement. Consider it as FYI for now.

Jotai & React gives us quite a few tools to manage the re-renders that happen in the app lifecycle. First, please read about the difference between render & commit, because that's very important to understand before going further.

Cheap renders

As seen in the core section, due to React 18 default behaviour (but overall good practice), you have to make sure your component functions are idempotent. They will be called multiple times during the render phase, even at mount. So we need to keep our renders cheap at all cost!

Heavy computation

Always make heavy computation outside of the React lifecycle (in actions for example)

Dont's:

// Heavy computation for each item
const selector = (s) => s.filter(heavyComputation)
const Profile = () => {
const [computed] = useAtom(selectAtom(friendsAtom, selector))
}

Do's:

const friendsAtom = atom([])
const fetchFriendsAtom = atom(null, async (get, set, payload) => {
// Fetch all friends
const res = await fetch('https://...')
// Make heavy computation once only
const computed = res.filter(heavyComputation)
set(friendsAtom, computed)
})
// Usage in components
const Profile = () => {
const [friends] = useAtom(friendsAtom)
}

Small components

Observed atoms should only re-render small parts of your application that required an update. The less comparison React has to make, the shorter your render time will be.

Dont's:

const Profile = () => {
const [name] = useAtom(nameAtom)
const [ageAtom] = useAtom(ageAtom)
return (
<>
<div>{name}</div>
<div>{age}</div>
</>
)
}

Do's:

const NameComponent = () => {
const [name] = useAtom(nameAtom)
return <div>{name}</div>
}
const AgeComponent = () => {
const [age] = useAtom(ageAtom)
return <div>{age}</div>
}
const Profile = () => {
return (
<>
<NameComponent />
<AgeComponent />
</>
)
}

Render on demand

Usually, the main performance overhead will come from re-rendering parts of your app that did not need to, or way more than they should.

We have a few tools to deal with "when" React should render our components. If you have not seen the usage of useMemo and useCallback, please check the offcial React documentation for more info before going further. They are of great use to reduce un-necessary renders where your app is not fluid.

But Jotai also provides its set of tools to handle the "when" our atoms should trigger a re-render.

  • Out of the box, Jotai encourages you to split your data into atomic parts, hence each atom is stored separately and will only trigger a re-render when their own value change
  • selectAtom allows you to subscribe to specific part of a large object and only re-render on value change
  • focusAtom same as selectAtom, but creating a new atom for the part, giving a setter to update that specific part easily
  • splitAtom does the work of selectAtom/focusAtom for a dynamic list

While this seems simplistic, it is simple to reason about. That was the goal, let's keep it simple to keep it fast.

Frequent or rare updates

Ask yourself whether your atom is usually going to be frequently update or more rarely. Let's imagine an atom containing an object that changes almost every second, it may not be best suited to "focus" on a specific properties of this object using focusAtom, because anyway they will all re-render in the same time, so best adding no overhead and not create any more atoms.

On the other hand, if your object has properties that rarely change, and most importantly, that change independently from the other properties, then you may want to use focusAtom or selectAtom to prevent un-necessary renders.

"Stop observing" pattern

An example of pattern that can be interesting is to use useMemo to read an atom value only once, in order to prevent further renders even if the atom changes down the line.

Let's imagine a case, you have a list of toggles. Let's view 2 approaches for it:

Standard pattern

We create our store of 3 toggles set to false

const togglesAtom = atom([false, false, false])

Then, when the user clicks one toggle, we update it

const Item = ({ index, val }) => {
const setToggles = useSetAtom(togglesAtom)
const onPress = () => {
setToggles(old => [...old, [index]: !val])
}
}
const List = () => {
const [toggles] = useAtom(togglesAtom)
return toggles.map((val, index) => <Item id={index} val={val} />)
}

With this approach, updating any toggle will cause all <Item /> to re-render.

Memoized pattern

Now let's try to memoize the value on the first render

const List = () => {
const [toggles] = useMemo(() => useAtom(togglesAtom), [])
return toggles.map((val, index) => <Item id={index} initialValue={val} />)
}

But now it means we have to handle the changes locally in each Item

const Item = ({ index, initialValue }) => {
const setToggles = useSetAtom(togglesAtom)
const [toggle, setToggle] = React.useMemo(() => useAtom(atom(val)), [])
const onPress = () => {
setToggle(!toggle) // Update locally
setToggles(old => [...old, [index]: !val]) // Update the main atom
}
}

Now if you update one toggle, it will only re-render the corresponding <Item />